Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychological condition characterized by an obsessive preoccupation with perceived flaws in one’s physical appearance. Individuals with BDD often have an exaggerated and distressing belief that certain parts of their body are defective or unattractive, even if others perceive them differently. This distorted perception leads to significant emotional distress, anxiety, and can severely impact daily functioning and quality of life. Body dysmorphic disorder can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and its causes are multifactorial, including genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Understanding the complexities of BDD is crucial for recognizing the signs, offering support, and providing appropriate treatment interventions to help individuals overcome the challenges associated with this disorder.
Table Of Contents:
What is Body Dysmorphic Disorder?
Common Symptoms and Signs of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
The Psychological Impact of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Prevalence and Demographics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Factors Contributing to the Development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
The Role of Genetics and Neurobiology in Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Sociocultural Influences on Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Co-occurring Disorders and Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Seeking Help and Treatment Options for Body Dysmorphic Disorder
1 What is Body Dysmorphic Disorder?
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a psychological condition characterized by an excessive and obsessive preoccupation with perceived flaws in one’s physical appearance. Individuals with BDD experience intense distress and dissatisfaction with their appearance, often focusing on specific body parts or facial features. This preoccupation goes beyond normal concerns about physical appearance and becomes all-consuming, leading to significant emotional distress and impairment in daily functioning.
1.1 Definition and Diagnostic Criteria of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder is classified as a mental health disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). According to the DSM-5, BDD is characterized by persistent thoughts and beliefs about perceived flaws that are not observable or appear minor to others. These obsessions lead to compulsive behaviors such as excessive grooming, seeking reassurance, or comparing oneself to others.
1.2 Understanding the Impact of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
The impact of BDD extends beyond the physical appearance concerns. Individuals with BDD often experience severe distress, anxiety, and depression due to their perceived flaws. This can lead to social withdrawal, impaired relationships, and reduced quality of life. The constant preoccupation with appearance can consume significant time and energy, affecting academic or professional performance.
1.3 The Spectrum of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder exists on a spectrum, ranging from mild to severe. While some individuals may experience relatively manageable symptoms, others may be severely debilitated by their condition. The severity of BDD can fluctuate over time, with periods of exacerbation and remission.
1.4 Co-occurring Conditions and Body Dysmorphic Disorder
BDD commonly co-occurs with other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating disorders. These comorbid conditions can further complicate the diagnosis and treatment of BDD.
Understanding the complexities of Body Dysmorphic Disorder is essential for early recognition, intervention, and support. By promoting awareness and providing appropriate treatment, individuals with BDD can find relief and improve their overall well-being.
2 Common Symptoms and Signs of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) manifests through a variety of symptoms and signs that are indicative of the condition. Recognizing these common manifestations is crucial for early identification and intervention. Individuals with BDD often exhibit the following symptoms:
2.1 Preoccupation with Appearance
One of the primary symptoms of BDD is an excessive preoccupation with one’s physical appearance. This preoccupation goes beyond normal self-consciousness and becomes all-consuming. The individual may spend hours each day obsessing over perceived flaws, constantly checking their appearance in mirrors or other reflective surfaces.
2.2 Distorted Perception
Individuals with BDD have a distorted perception of their appearance. They often perceive minor or nonexistent flaws as significant imperfections. This distorted perception can be highly distressing, leading to a deep sense of shame, embarrassment, and self-consciousness.
2.3 Engaging in Compulsive Behaviors
To cope with their distress, individuals with BDD may engage in compulsive behaviors. These behaviors can include excessive grooming, such as constant hair styling or skin picking, or seeking reassurance from others about their appearance. They may also engage in excessive comparison with others, constantly seeking validation or reassurance that they look “normal.”
2.4 Avoidance of Social Situations
Due to their intense self-consciousness and fear of judgment, individuals with BDD may avoid social situations or isolate themselves. They may withdraw from activities they once enjoyed or feel uncomfortable in public settings where they believe their perceived flaws will be noticed.
2.5 Emotional Distress and Impairment
BDD is often accompanied by significant emotional distress, including anxiety, depression, and feelings of hopelessness. The condition can impair various aspects of daily functioning, including work or school performance, relationships, and overall quality of life.
2.6 Impact on Body Image and Self-Esteem
Individuals with BDD typically have a negative body image and low self-esteem. They may experience intense shame or embarrassment about their appearance, which can lead to a persistent sense of inadequacy and self-criticism.
Recognizing these common symptoms and signs of Body Dysmorphic Disorder is crucial for early intervention and treatment. By understanding the unique challenges faced by individuals with BDD, appropriate support and resources can be provided to help them overcome their struggles and improve their mental well-being.
3 The Psychological Impact of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) exerts a significant psychological impact on individuals who experience it. The condition affects their thoughts, emotions, and overall mental well-being. Understanding the psychological implications of BDD is essential for comprehensive treatment and support. The following aspects highlight the psychological impact of BDD:
3.1 Distorted Self-Perception
Individuals with BDD have a distorted self-perception that revolves around their appearance. They become fixated on perceived flaws and exhibit extreme dissatisfaction with their physical appearance, despite objective evidence to the contrary. This distorted self-perception can lead to heightened self-consciousness, a deep sense of shame, and constant comparisons with others.
3.2 Emotional Distress
BDD is accompanied by intense emotional distress. Individuals experience high levels of anxiety, depression, and feelings of hopelessness. They may constantly feel on edge, overwhelmed by their perceived flaws, and frustrated by their inability to change their appearance to align with their idealized standards.
3.3 Impaired Body Image
The negative body image experienced by individuals with BDD is a central aspect of the disorder. They often struggle with feelings of ugliness, unattractiveness, and self-disgust. This distorted body image influences their self-esteem, leading to a persistent sense of inadequacy and self-criticism.
3.4 Interference in Daily Functioning
The psychological impact of BDD extends to various areas of daily functioning. The excessive preoccupation with appearance and distressing thoughts about flaws can significantly interfere with work, school, and social activities. Individuals may find it challenging to concentrate, experience decreased productivity, and withdraw from relationships and social situations.
3.5 Social and Occupational Impairment
BDD can result in significant social and occupational impairment. Individuals may isolate themselves, avoiding social interactions and opportunities for personal and professional growth. They may have difficulty maintaining relationships due to their intense self-consciousness and fear of judgment. Additionally, BDD can lead to decreased job satisfaction, reduced performance, and limitations in career advancement.
3.6 Impact on Quality of Life
The cumulative psychological impact of BDD takes a toll on an individual’s overall quality of life. The constant distress, anxiety, and negative self-perception can lead to feelings of despair, isolation, and a diminished sense of purpose. The individual’s ability to experience joy and engage in fulfilling activities may be severely compromised.
Understanding the psychological impact of Body Dysmorphic Disorder is crucial for providing effective treatment and support. By addressing the emotional distress, improving self-perception, and enhancing overall mental well-being, individuals with BDD can experience a significant improvement in their quality of life.
4 Prevalence and Demographics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a relatively common mental health condition that affects individuals of diverse demographics. Understanding the prevalence and demographic factors associated with BDD is essential for recognizing its impact on different populations. The following information sheds light on the prevalence and demographics of BDD:
4.1 Prevalence Rates
Research suggests that the prevalence of BDD ranges from 0.7% to 2.4% in the general population. However, due to the underreporting and misdiagnosis of the disorder, the actual prevalence may be higher. BDD is equally prevalent among men and women, although it is believed that men may be less likely to seek treatment, leading to a potential underestimation of the disorder in this population.
4.2 Onset and Age of Diagnosis
The onset of BDD typically occurs during adolescence or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. The disorder often begins in the teenage years, a period marked by significant physical and social changes. However, it can also manifest later in life, triggered by life events or changes in body appearance.
4.3 Gender Differences
While BDD affects both genders, there are some differences in the specific concerns and areas of body focus. Men may be more preoccupied with muscle mass, body shape, and hair loss, whereas women often focus on their weight, skin, and facial features. However, it is important to note that these gender differences are not absolute, and individuals of any gender can experience BDD.
4.4 Impact on Adolescents
Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to developing BDD due to the physical changes associated with puberty, societal pressures, and the influence of social media. The emphasis on appearance and the desire to fit in can exacerbate body image concerns, increasing the risk of developing BDD during this developmental stage.
4.5 Co-Occurrence with Other Disorders
BDD frequently co-occurs with other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The presence of these comorbid conditions can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of BDD, as symptoms may overlap or interact with each other.
4.6 Cultural and Societal Influences
Cultural and societal factors can also contribute to the prevalence of BDD. Societies that place a high value on physical appearance, have unrealistic beauty standards, or emphasize the importance of external appearance may increase the risk of developing BDD.
Understanding the prevalence and demographics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder helps to raise awareness about the disorder’s impact across diverse populations. By recognizing the factors that contribute to its development and manifestation, healthcare professionals can better identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate interventions and support.
5 Factors Contributing to the Development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
The development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is influenced by a complex interplay of various factors. While the exact cause of BDD is not fully understood, research has identified several factors that contribute to its development. Understanding these factors can provide insights into the underlying mechanisms and help in the prevention and treatment of BDD. The following are key factors that contribute to the development of BDD:
5.1 Genetic Factors
There is evidence to suggest a genetic predisposition to BDD. Studies have found that individuals with a family history of BDD or other psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or mood disorders, have a higher risk of developing BDD. Genetic factors may contribute to abnormalities in brain structure and function, neurotransmitter imbalances, and alterations in the regulation of body image perception.
5.2 Neurobiological Factors
Neurobiological factors play a role in the development of BDD. Neuroimaging studies have shown differences in brain regions involved in body image processing and emotion regulation in individuals with BDD. Dysregulation of serotonin, dopamine, and other neurotransmitter systems may also contribute to the development and maintenance of BDD symptoms.
5.3 Environmental Factors
Environmental factors, such as childhood experiences, cultural influences, and societal pressures, can contribute to the development of BDD. Traumatic experiences related to appearance, such as bullying or teasing, can shape negative body image and self-perception. Sociocultural factors, including media exposure, societal beauty ideals, and peer comparisons, can also contribute to body dissatisfaction and the development of BDD.
5.4 Cognitive Factors
Cognitive factors play a significant role in BDD. Individuals with BDD often have distorted and negative beliefs about their appearance. They engage in selective attention and focus excessively on perceived flaws, while disregarding positive aspects of their appearance. Cognitive biases, such as confirmation bias and perfectionism, contribute to the maintenance of BDD symptoms and the perpetuation of distorted body image.
5.5 Psychological Factors
Psychological factors, including low self-esteem, perfectionism, and anxiety, contribute to the development of BDD. Individuals with BDD often have low self-worth tied to their appearance and experience high levels of anxiety related to their perceived flaws. Additionally, maladaptive coping strategies, such as avoidance or excessive grooming behaviors, can reinforce BDD symptoms and perpetuate the disorder.
5.6 Life Events and Stressors
Life events and stressors can trigger or exacerbate BDD symptoms. Traumatic events, significant life changes, or interpersonal stressors may contribute to the onset or worsening of BDD. These events can disrupt self-esteem, increase self-consciousness, and intensify negative body image concerns.
Understanding the factors that contribute to the development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder is crucial for early intervention and effective treatment. By addressing genetic, neurobiological, environmental, cognitive, and psychological factors, healthcare professionals can provide comprehensive support to individuals with BDD and help them regain a healthier relationship with their body image.
6 The Role of Genetics and Neurobiology in Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a complex mental health condition influenced by a combination of genetic and neurobiological factors. Understanding the role of genetics and neurobiology in BDD can provide valuable insights into its underlying mechanisms and help improve diagnosis and treatment approaches. Here, we explore the significant role of genetics and neurobiology in BDD:
6.1 Genetic Predisposition
Genetic factors play a significant role in the development of BDD. Studies have shown that individuals with a family history of BDD or other psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or mood disorders, have a higher risk of developing BDD themselves. This suggests a genetic predisposition to the disorder. Researchers have identified specific gene variants that may be associated with BDD, although further investigation is needed to fully understand their impact.
6.2 Brain Structure and Function
Neurobiological studies have revealed differences in brain structure and function in individuals with BDD. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have shown alterations in brain regions involved in body image processing, emotion regulation, and cognitive control. These findings suggest that individuals with BDD may have abnormal brain connectivity and neural activity related to body image perception and emotional responses.
6.3 Neurotransmitter Imbalances
Neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, also play a role in BDD. Dysregulation of serotonin, dopamine, and other neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the development and maintenance of BDD symptoms. Serotonin, in particular, is involved in mood regulation and has been linked to obsessive-compulsive behaviors and body image disturbances.
6.4 Body Image Perception
Genetic and neurobiological factors can influence how individuals perceive their body image. The brain processes visual information and interprets it, leading to subjective perceptions of one’s appearance. In BDD, there is evidence of altered body image processing, with heightened attention to perceived flaws and distorted perception of one’s appearance. Genetic and neurobiological factors may contribute to these perceptual biases and the preoccupation with specific body features.
6.5 Interaction with Environmental Factors
While genetics and neurobiology play a significant role in BDD, it is important to note that they interact with environmental factors. Traumatic experiences, cultural influences, and societal pressures can shape and exacerbate the genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities associated with BDD. The interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental factors is crucial in understanding the complexity of the disorder.
7 Sociocultural Influences on Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a multifaceted mental health condition influenced by a variety of factors, including sociocultural influences. The society and culture in which individuals live can have a profound impact on their perception of body image and contribute to the development and maintenance of BDD. Understanding the sociocultural influences on BDD is crucial for addressing the complexities of the disorder. Let’s explore the significant role of sociocultural factors in BDD:
7.1 Media Exposure
The media plays a powerful role in shaping societal beauty ideals and can significantly impact individuals’ body image perception. The portrayal of unrealistic and idealized bodies in advertisements, movies, television shows, and social media platforms can create an unattainable standard of beauty. Constant exposure to these images can lead to body dissatisfaction and fuel the development of BDD symptoms, as individuals strive to meet unrealistic standards.
7.2 Cultural Beauty Ideals
Different cultures have their own unique beauty standards and ideals. Societal norms, cultural practices, and expectations regarding appearance can influence individuals’ body image perception. For example, cultures that prioritize thinness may contribute to the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Cultural factors, such as pressure to conform to specific beauty standards, can exacerbate body image concerns and contribute to the development of BDD.
7.3 Peer Comparisons
Peer influence and social comparisons play a significant role in body image dissatisfaction and the development of BDD. Comparing oneself to others, particularly to individuals perceived as more attractive or desirable, can lead to feelings of inadequacy and dissatisfaction with one’s own appearance. Peer pressure and social acceptance can further contribute to the drive for perfection and the relentless pursuit of an idealized body.
7.4 Stigmatization and Teasing
Negative societal attitudes towards individuals with perceived physical flaws or differences can contribute to the development of BDD. Stigmatization, bullying, and teasing related to one’s appearance can significantly impact self-esteem and body image. The fear of judgment and social rejection may fuel obsessive thoughts and preoccupation with perceived flaws, reinforcing the symptoms of BDD.
7.5 Cultural Context and Body Image
Sociocultural factors also influence the cultural context within which body image concerns are perceived and validated. In some cultures, specific body features may be considered desirable, while in others, they may be seen as undesirable. Cultural attitudes towards body image and beauty can shape individuals’ perception of their appearance and contribute to the development of BDD symptoms.
8 Co-occurring Disorders and Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) often coexists with other mental health disorders, highlighting the complex nature of the condition and its impact on individuals’ overall well-being. Understanding the relationship between BDD and co-occurring disorders is essential for comprehensive assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Let’s explore some of the common co-occurring disorders associated with BDD:
8.1 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
There is a significant overlap between BDD and OCD. Both disorders involve repetitive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and an intense focus on perceived flaws or defects. Individuals with BDD may engage in compulsive behaviors such as excessive mirror checking, grooming rituals, or seeking reassurance. The presence of both BDD and OCD can complicate the treatment approach, requiring a tailored intervention that addresses the symptoms of both disorders.
8.2 Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, or specific phobias, commonly co-occur with BDD. The preoccupation with perceived flaws and concerns about appearance can lead to heightened anxiety and distress. Anxiety symptoms can further exacerbate body image concerns and interfere with daily functioning. Addressing the underlying anxiety is crucial in the comprehensive treatment of individuals with co-occurring BDD and anxiety disorders.
Depression frequently coexists with BDD, as individuals with BDD often experience significant emotional distress, low self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness. The dissatisfaction with one’s appearance and the impact on social and occupational functioning can contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Treating both BDD and depression requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the underlying factors contributing to both disorders.
8.4 Eating Disorders
There is a strong association between BDD and eating disorders, particularly body image-related disorders like anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Individuals with BDD may have distorted body image perceptions and engage in extreme dieting, excessive exercise, or other disordered eating behaviors in an attempt to change their appearance. Addressing the underlying body image concerns and disordered eating patterns is crucial in the treatment of co-occurring BDD and eating disorders.
8.5 Substance Use Disorders
Substance use disorders can co-occur with BDD, as individuals may turn to substances as a coping mechanism to manage the distress and anxiety associated with their body image concerns. Substance use can further exacerbate the symptoms of BDD and interfere with the individual’s ability to engage in effective treatment. A comprehensive approach that addresses both BDD and substance use is necessary for successful recovery.
Understanding the presence of co-occurring disorders in individuals with BDD is vital for providing comprehensive and effective treatment. A multidisciplinary approach involving mental health professionals, such as therapists, psychiatrists, and medical practitioners, can help address the complex needs of individuals with co-occurring BDD and other mental health disorders. By addressing the underlying factors contributing to the co-occurring disorders, individuals can achieve improved mental well-being and quality of life.
9 Seeking Help and Treatment Options for Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Recognizing and addressing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is crucial for individuals to regain control of their lives and improve their mental well-being. Seeking professional help and exploring treatment options can provide the necessary support and guidance for recovery. Here are some essential aspects to consider when seeking help for BDD:
9.1 Recognizing the Need for Help
The first step in seeking help for BDD is recognizing the need for assistance. Individuals with BDD often struggle with feelings of shame, embarrassment, or denial about their condition. It is important to understand that BDD is a legitimate mental health disorder and seeking help is a brave and important decision.
9.2 Consulting a Mental Health Professional
Consulting a mental health professional experienced in treating BDD is crucial. Psychiatrists, psychologists, or therapists with expertise in body image disorders can provide an accurate diagnosis and create an individualized treatment plan. They can offer guidance, support, and evidence-based interventions to address the symptoms and underlying causes of BDD.
Psychotherapy, specifically Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), is often considered the gold standard treatment for BDD. CBT focuses on identifying and challenging distorted thoughts and beliefs related to body image, as well as developing healthy coping strategies and behavioral changes. Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) therapy, a specific form of CBT, helps individuals gradually confront and resist their compulsive behaviors and avoidance patterns.
In some cases, medication can be prescribed to manage the symptoms of BDD. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), a type of antidepressant, may be prescribed to help alleviate the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsessive thoughts associated with BDD. Medication should be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional.
9.5 Support Groups and Peer Support
Engaging in support groups or seeking peer support can be beneficial for individuals with BDD. Connecting with others who have similar experiences can provide a sense of validation, understanding, and encouragement. Support groups can offer a safe space to share concerns, exchange coping strategies, and gain insights from others on the journey to recovery.
9.6 Self-Care and Lifestyle Changes
In addition to professional help, implementing self-care practices and making positive lifestyle changes can support the recovery process. This may include practicing stress-management techniques, engaging in regular physical activity, getting enough sleep, maintaining a balanced diet, and avoiding triggers that exacerbate BDD symptoms.
9.7 Collaborative Treatment Approach
Successful treatment often involves a collaborative approach, with mental health professionals working together to provide comprehensive care. This may include coordination between therapists, psychiatrists, primary care physicians, and other healthcare providers. The integration of different treatment modalities ensures a holistic approach to address the complex needs of individuals with BDD.
Remember, seeking help and treatment for BDD is an important step towards healing and reclaiming one’s life. With professional guidance, support from loved ones, and a commitment to self-care, individuals can embark on a journey of recovery and experience improved body image, self-esteem, and overall well-being.
Frequently Asked Questions
Body dysmorphia, or body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), is a mental health condition characterized by obsessive concerns and preoccupation with perceived flaws in one's appearance. Common signs include excessive grooming, constant checking of appearance, and seeking reassurance about one's appearance.
An example of body dysmorphic disorder would be an individual who spends several hours each day obsessing over a perceived flaw, such as a facial feature or body shape, to the point that it affects their daily functioning and overall well-being.
The exact cause of body dysmorphia is unknown. However, it is believed to be a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Traumatic experiences, societal pressures, and a history of body shaming or bullying may also contribute to its development.
The two types of dysmorphia commonly referred to are body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and muscle dysmorphia. BDD focuses on perceived flaws in appearance, while muscle dysmorphia involves an excessive preoccupation with body size, muscularity, and leanness.
Yes, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is recognized as a mental illness. It is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) under obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.
While there is no definitive cure for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), it can be effectively managed and treated through a combination of therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, and support from mental health professionals. With proper treatment, many individuals with BDD experience significant improvement in their symptoms and quality of life.
BDD is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive assessment by a mental health professional. The diagnosis involves evaluating the individual's symptoms, history, and their level of distress and impairment caused by the preoccupation with perceived flaws.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is considered a related disorder to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to the presence of intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors. However, it is recognized as a distinct condition with its own set of diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches.
- Mayo Clinic – Body Dysmorphic Disorder: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/body-dysmorphic-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20353938
- National Institute of Mental Health – Body Dysmorphic Disorder: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/body-dysmorphic-disorder/index.shtml
- American Psychiatric Association – Body Dysmorphic Disorder: https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/body-dysmorphic-disorder/what-is-body-dysmorphic-disorder
- Anxiety and Depression Association of America – Body Dysmorphic Disorder: https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/other-related-conditions/body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd
- National Eating Disorders Association – Body Dysmorphic Disorder: https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/learn/by-eating-disorder/other/bdd